In the tree the rings, and in radioactive carbon there are signs are of Vikings throughout North America

A settlement's wood in Canada's Newfoundland which was cut using metal tools ! ! !


Vikings who came from Greenland - one of the first Europeans to reach the Americas -resided in a community in Canada's Newfoundland precisely 1,000 years ago, as per research released on Wednesday.

Researchers have been aware for decades the fact that Vikings, a term used to refer by the Norse from the English they fought established a town at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland at the beginning in the year 2000. However, a research published in Nature has been the only study study to determine the year of its Norse occupation.

The explorationists -- which included up to 100 people, women and men fell trees to construct their village and also to repair their vessels, and the study fixes the date of their visit in the year 1021 by revealing that they cut down 3 trees during 1021, about 470 years earlier than Christopher Columbus reached the Bahamas in 1492.

"This is the first time the date has been scientifically established," archaeologist Margot Kuitems, who is a scholar in the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and study's chief author.

"Previously the date was based only on sagas -- oral histories that were only written down in the 13th century, at least 200 years after the events they described took place," she explained.

The first Norse people to settle in Greenland came originally from Iceland and Scandinavia and the arrival of the first explorers to Newfoundland is the first time when humanity traveled around the globe.

However, their stay wasn't very long. According to research, the Norse lived in L'Anse aux Meadows for three to 13 years prior to when they left the town and moved back to Greenland.

Image: Reconstructed Norse structures

The reconstruction of Norse structures at L'Anse aux Meadows are based on excavations conducted at the archeological site. The building could be a church, as Many Norse were Christian during this period however, it is not necessarily so.Glenn Nagel Photography Shutterstock

The remains of the ancient site are preserved as a historical site and Parks Canada has built an interpretive center near by. It's designated as an World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

The scientific basis for the precise date when the Norse were at the site is the presence of a spike in a radioactive form of carbon that has been found in old pieces of wood found on the site. These include some sticks that were cast off, a part of a tree's trunk and what appears to be the plank.

Indigenous people lived in L'Anse aux Meadows both before and following the arrival of the Norse The researchers took care to ensure that every piece was marked with distinct marks indicating that it was cut using metal tools, which the indigenous people were not able to have.

The archaeologists have relied for a long time on radiocarbon dating in order to establish an approximate time frame for organic substances like charcoal, bone and wood However, the latest research utilizes a method that is built on the global "cosmic ray event" -most likely caused by huge solar flares to establish an exact date.

Three pieces of wood from the Norse layers of the site were made with tools made of metal which the native people were not equipped with - and displayed distinctive radiocarbon tracetraces of cosmic rays that occurred in A.D. 993.

Three pieces of timber in the Norse layers of the site were cut using metal tools which the indigenous people were not equipped with - and had distinctive radiocarbon tracetraces of a cosmic ray incident that occurred in A.D. 993.Petra Doeve

Studies have previously established that the existence of cosmic ray events in 993. It for a short period of time produced higher than usual quantities of radioactive carbon-14 within carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

The trees "breathe" carbon dioxide as they grow. So researchers utilized this carbon signature radioactive to identify which of the annual growth rings that are visible in the cross-sections of the wood came made up of the year 993. Kuitems said.

Then they utilized a microscope to measure the rings of growth that were later to the wood's bark was identified, which revealed the exact date when the tree stopped expanding -- that is that it had been taken down from the Norse.

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Then they discovered that all three wood pieces they examined came from a tree that was which was felled in 1021 however, they came from three different species of trees: two firs, and most likely one Juniper.

Researchers aren't able to determine when the 1021 date was at the beginning or near the conclusion period of Norse occupation However, they anticipate that future study of other woods from the site will broaden the date range, Kuitems said.

The Norse travels from Newfoundland were mentioned two Icelandic stories that indicate L'Anse aux Meadows was a temporary base for explorers arriving in at least six different expeditions.

The first group was headed by Leif Erikson, also known as Leif The Lucky -one of the sons of Erik the Red, the creator of the very first Norse Settlement in Greenland.

L'Anse aux Meadows, too was believed as a long-term settlement however, the sagas suggest that it was abandoned because of disputes and conflict with indigenous peoples who are what the Norse called"skraeling," a term which could mean "wearers of animal skins."

The stories refer to the whole region as Vinland which translates to "wineland" -- supposedly because it was warm enough to allow wine grapes to develop.

In the years before Newfoundland itself was at that time too cold to be suitable for grapes The name implies that the Norse also looked for warmer areas further south. Pieces of exotic wood discovered on the site suggest that Kuitems claimed.

It is believed that using an old cosmic ray event to precisely the date of pieces of wood is not a new idea similar methods are being employed to establish precise dates on other sites, said Sturt Manning who is a professor of archaeology of Cornell University, who was not involved in the study.

"It's a clever application," said the official. "This is the first clear evidence of Europeans arriving in North America."